What is CBD?
by Rodrigo Diaz
2 months ago
The Cutaneous Cannabinoid System
As we saw in our previous post, our Endocannabinoid System (ECS) carries out multiple functions to maintain an optimal state for our body's internal, physical, and chemical conditions (homeostasis). These functions are carried out by ECS receptors (CB1, CB2) and are found throughout the body, including our skin where it's called the Cutaneous Cannabinoid System (CCS) or the Cutannabinoid (kiu-tanna-bin-oid) System. This means that Cannabidiol (CBD) that is applied to the skin can potentially connect with receptors regulating certain skin processes. In this post, we'll take an indepth look into the CCS and, with science-backed information, understand the role of topical CBD and skin's regulatory processes.
The CCS and Receptors
Studies have shown that the CCS is responsible for the well-balanced proliferation (growth), differentiation and survival, as well as immune competence and/or tolerance (how well the skin reacts to infections or diseases), of skin cells (source) and the dysregulation of CCS has been associated to dermatological disorders such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, scleroderma and skin cancer (source). These complex processes, as mentioned above, involve cannabinoid recptors, CB1 and CB2 which distributed throughout the skin. But where are they found exactly?
Keratinocytes: Produce keratin which is responsible for the strength and flexibility of our skin
Melanocytes: Known for their role in skin pigmentation, and their ability to produce and distribute melanin
Sebaceous and sweat glands: Secrete oil into hair follicles, keep the skin temperature regulated, and secrete water, salts, and waste.
The receptors found in the skin (but not limit to the skin) bind to endocannabinoids (molecules made by your body - similar to cannabinoids) which signal the up or down regulation of certain processes in the skin to keep it optimized. This suggest that topical cannabinoids may interact and also signal the up or down regulation of thee processes.
What is CBD
Cannabidoil (CBD) is one of over 113 active compounds found in the Cannabis sativa plant either in marijuana (contains more than 0.3% of THC) or hemp (contains 0.3% or less of THC content by dry weight). Where as THC ( delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ) is the psychoactive chemical in these plants, CBD is a non-psychoactive chemical.
Types of CBD Extraction
Full Spectrum CBD
Full spectrum CBD products contain every part of the cannabis plant, including trace amounts of THC. Most importantly, full spectrum products contain all of the plant’s terpenes and cannabinoids. Terpenes are what give cannabis its distinctive smell, but they do much more than that. Full spectrum, or “whole plant” CBD also contains the hemp plant’s natural fatty acids, flavonoids, and other cannabinoids. Terpenes, CBN, CBG and CBD are not psychoactive. Even though full spectrum CBD products contain a trace amount of THC, it is not enough to produce a high. It is a small enough amount to stay within the legal limits for CBD. When comparing full spectrum products, it’s important to look for independent lab test results showing the percentages of each cannabinoid.
Broad Spectrum CBD
Broad spectrum CBD contains all of the cannabis plant’s cannabinoids and terpenes except THC. Manufacturers process their CBD product to isolate and remove as much THC as possible while preserving the other natural substances. In the past, the only way to get CBD without THC was through a CBD isolate. Through advances in chromatography, manufacturers developed the ability to filter out all THC while leaving the rest of the plant’s contents intact.
CBD isolate is the fully extracted cannabinoid and 99%+ pure. The reason one would choose CBD isolate over the others is for a higher purity of CBD and achieve the full benefits of the compound while not having the scent of the hemp plant.
The CCS and CBD Interaction
Studies have shown an interaction between the CCS and CBD, yet more research is warranted, but from what we do know is that there are significant changes in the skin when a dysfunction in the CCS occurs (as mentioned in the first paragraph). But what results have been found between CBD and the CCS?
Acne - CBD was found to exert complex anti-acne effects by normalizing several pro-acne agents (by maintaining fats in sebaceous glands). The counter: Any overstimulation of the CCS receptors can promote the development of over oil production and acne.
Pigmentation Disorders - When skin is exposed to CBD, melanocytes showed and increase in melanogenesis (pigentation production) and tyrosinase activity (controls the rate of melanin production). This shows promising research in depigmentation disorders like vitiligo.
Psoriasis - A chronic inflammatory disorder which is associated with genetic and epigenetic abnormalities and well as fluctuations in the the skin's microbiome and pH. The anti-inflammatory properties of endocannbinoids and cannabinoids (including CBD) involved with CB1 and CB2 receptors may hold a better understanding for effective treatments.
Source: ( Toth, K. F., Adam, D., Biro, T., & Olah, A. (2019). Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System. Molecules. 24(918). DOI: 10.3390/molecules24050918.)
What do you think about CBD and Skincare?
Personally speaking, there is no doubt that there is a signification change in the body when taking CBD as a supplement. For the sake of this post, understanding the physiological effects on the skin was a little more time consuming and took me down some highly specialized, scientific papers. While we do consult with specialized chemists and dermatologists I suggest people to do the same and to do the research not only on CBD but also those CBD products.
What's happening at GOA Skincare Labs
Using CBD for a few years now we decided to create a research based environment to understand the effects of CBD on our skin. This would take our lab in a new direction towards healthier, more balanced skin in the presence of our daily, chaotic lifestyles. With stress, fatigue, alcohol, and sun exposure as core elements to work on, GOA presents a 'next-gen' formula for both men and women; The CBD Recovery Facial Serum. This launches August 15th, 2020. (Availability limited to some US states)